Created in 2000, Dui Hua’s Political Prisoner Database (PPDB) contains information about political and religious prisoners incarcerated in China since 1980. Using mostly open-source materials, Dui Hua collects information on non-violent:

  • Political dissidents: people imprisoned for expressing their opposition to one-party rule by exercising universally recognized rights to free speech and association and often charged with “endangering state security” crimes such as “subversion” and “incitement”
  • Religious practitioners: people persecuted for holding religious beliefs that are not officially sanctioned, including members of house churches and Falun Gong
  • Ethnic minorities: people labeled “splittists” and jailed for participating in cultural and pro-independence movements
  • Petitioners: people jailed for seeking redress to grievances related to land seizure, demolition, corruption, miscarriages of justice, and other issues

The purpose of the PPDB is to advance clemency and better treatment for at-risk detainees by analyzing trends in the persecution of individuals who exercise their universal human rights to free speech, association, and expression; documenting the treatment of political and religious prisoners in the criminal justice system; providing raw material for the drafting of prisoner lists of concern; and informing dialogue with government officials inside and outside China.

2021 PPDB Q4

Names: 45,868

People under coercive measures: 7,602

Official records: 20,991

Unofficial records: 37,954

as of December 31, 2021


Key Metrics for Active (under coercive measures) Cases

Total Prisoners 45,868
Active (under coercive measures) 7,602

Top Crimes

Organizing/using a cult to undermine implementation of the law 3,448
Picking quarrels and provoking troubles 445
Endangering State Security – Splittism; Inciting splittism 444
Endangering State Security – State Secrets; Espionage 266
Gathering a crowd to disturb social order 113
Endangering State Security – Subversion; Inciting subversion 97

Top Provinces

Xinjiang 1,324
Sichuan 721
Liaoning 396
Shandong 389
Henan 343


M 2,839
F 2,271

Gender by Top Crimes

Cult 836 1,704
Picking quarrels 208 150
Splittism; Inciting splittism 204 26

The information above is based on information Dui Hua has obtained, the information does not represent all cases involving political prisoners in China.